By Arne Naess

Here, Naess tries to make the case why even the more modest aims of what he calls “shallow environmentalism” have a need for deep ecology. The Eight Basic Principles of Deep Ecology are presented and carefully elaborated in this text from 1986. On basis of a number of key terms and slogans that figured in the environmental debate at the time, Naess further aims to clarify the contrast between the shallow and the deep.