The Deep Ecology Movement: Some Philosophical Aspects

By Arne Naess Here, Naess tries to make the case why even the more modest aims of what he calls “shallow environmentalism” have a need for deep ecology. The Eight Basic Principles of Deep Ecology are presented and carefully elaborated in this text from 1986. On basis of a number of key terms and [...]


The Heart of the Forest

By Arne Naess When developers make a road through a forest, the amount of square meters that is taken for this might be small. Naess, however, would argue that such a road may well go through the heart of this forest. When one gets deeper and deeper into a forest, he suggests in this [...]


Beautiful Action: Its Function in the Ecological Crisis

By Arne Naess In efforts to counteract the current ecological crisis, Naess looks for actions that may be politically more effective than those depending on a sense of ethical obligation to act in ecologically responsible ways. One could also encourage – perhaps with more chance of having a lasting impact – the performance of what [...]


An Example of a Place: Tvergastein

By Arne Naess In this article from 1992, Naess describes how Tvergastein, the mountain hut at which he wrote many of his books and articles, came to be his “home,” a place where he developed a strong bond and internal relation to the environment. Here he learned deep lessons which encouraged him to articulate [...]


Metaphysics of the Treeline

By Arne Naess Throughout his life, Naess felt a mythopoetic connection with the space that opens up, when one moves beyond the treeline. Naess contrasts subordinate gestalts, that is, lesser forms of what is real, with higher-order gestalts such as the contrast between high and low, and dark and light. Movement towards treeline – [...]


Essays and Articles

Arne Naess Essays & Articles

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